Realizations

Module 1: Assesments Basics

As a new student taking up an education units, this subject (Principles and Methods of Assessment) was just new to me. Before, what I understand about assessment is just merely an evaluation that is graded and measured by giving systematic tools such as an examination or Tests.

Another kind of Assessment I know and have been through but turned out to be meaningless to me, was when I was assessed by a Canadian Expert in applying for a working VISA. Sadly, my credentials did not meet the requirements, so I guess it’s the reason why the result was an application for a student VISA only.

A lot of resources was given by Teacher Malou. As part of my learning, I even posted my notes in one of the categories here entitled “Basic Terminologies used in Assessment” which can also be found at https://aimeeaimeeblog.wordpress.com/category/notes/. On that page you’ll see all the Definition of Terms.

I’d like to share from the compilation of definition in Eric Soulsby assessment notes, wherein it was noted that assessment is the systematic collection, review, and use of information about educational programs undertaken for the purpose of improving student learning & development. This one has been closely similar to the one I thought was the meaning of assessment.

By reading the entire resources provided, I realized that words and terms were often used interchangeably. Obviously, each term was distinct from the others. I cited an example to clarify the distinctions from the suggested resources of our dear FIC. Below is some of it:

 Assessment VS.  Evaluation

Distinctions Assessment Evaluation
Process Assessment of a process means we are understanding the state or the condition of a process through objective measurements and observations Evaluation is determining the value of something.
Timing More of an ongoing process. It is formative. More of a final process. It is summative.
Focus of Measurement Known as process-oriented. That means it focuses on improving the process Known as product-oriented. That means it focuses on the quality of the process
Administrator and Recipient The relationship administrator and recipient share in assessment is reflective. There are internally defined goals. The relationship administrator and recipient share in evaluation is prescriptive as there are standards that are externally imposed
Findings For identifying areas that need improvement. Judgmental in evaluation as they come to an overall score
Modifiability of Criteria Criteria are flexible in assessment as they can be changed Criteria are fixed in evaluation to punish the failures and reward the success.
Relationship between the students The students are trying to learn from each other The students are trying to defeat one another.
Standards of Measurements Standards are set to reach ideal outcomes Standards are set to separate better and worse.

The best part I understand about the difference of assessment from evaluation is the table that shows comparison of characteristics. It is the dimension and distinction in each other. Below shows the table I mentioned a while ago:

Comparison of Characteristics
Assessment vs Evaluation

Assessment Evaluation
Formative
Cyclical – ongoing to improve learning
Summative
final to gauge quality
Process-Oriented
How learning is going
Product-Oriented
What’s been learned
Reflective
Internally defined criteria/goals
Perspective
Externally imposed standards
Diagnostic
Identify areas for improvement
Conclusive
Arrive at an overall grade/score
Flexible –
Adjust as problems are clarified
Fixed –
Determine success or failure in reaching desired outcome

Assessment in education is done in order to improve the process. The assessment pays attention to learning, teaching, as well as the outcomes.

A good example of the distinction from assessment to evaluation is when it comes to the TIMING. An assessment can be a small paper given to the students by the lecturer. Some give the test at the beginning of the course to find out what the students know already about the subject. During my elementary days, it was called Pre-test. ( I finally realized now why there are rumors about the test that you should at least have a lower grade from pre-test and a higher grade from the Post-test). Either way, it is not only for the benefit of the students but also to the lecturer to have a general idea on how to arrange the course content to suit the needs of the student.

On the other hand, evaluation when it comes to TIMING, is the final process that is determined to understand the quality of the process and this is graded. This type of test was called Post-test (again, this was the term used in my time in elementary days).

To sum it all according to my learning, Assessment, in relation to educational and instructional concept is a continuous systematic process of gathering , analyzing and interpreting of evidences done to identify areas that needs improvement in students with regards to what they have learnt. These are set to achieve ideal outcomes as well. Assessment in education should be precise and accurate using correct measurement called Direct measures such as exams/tests, papers, projects, presentations, portfolios, performances, etc.

Thank you for reading!

Kindly post your replies, comments or suggestions if you have. All will be highly appreciated.

Happy learning!

 

 

 

 

Notes

Basic Terminologies used in Assessment

assessment

EVALUATION

Evaluation is a judgment by the instructor or educational researcher about whether the program or instruction has met its Intended Learning Outcomes (ILO).

TESTING

A method to determine a student’s ability to complete certain tasks or demonstrate mastery of a skill or knowledge of content. Some types would be multiple choice tests, or a weekly spelling test. While it is commonly used interchangeably with assessment, or even evaluation, it can be distinguished by the fact that a test is one form of an assessment.

GRADING

Grading could be considered a component of assessment, i.e., a formal, summative, final and product-oriented judgment of overall quality of worth of a student’s performance or achievement in a particular educational activity, e.g., a course. Generally, grading also employs a comparative standard of measurement and sets up a competitive relationship between those receiving the grades.

MEASUREMENT

Measurement is the process of knowing about physical qualities of objects and individuals such as length, weight, height, volume, density, and so on.

PERFORMANCE CRITERIA

The standard by which students performance is evaluated. Performance criteria help assessors maintain objectivity and provide students with important information about expectations, giving them a target or goal to strive for. (New Horizons for Learning)

LEARNING OBJECTIVES

Learning objectives are brief statements that describe what students will be expected to learn by the end of school year, course, unit, lesson, project, or class period. In many cases, learning objectives are the interim academic goals that teachers establish for students who are working toward meeting more comprehensive learning standards. Learning objectives are also a way to establish and articulate academic expectations for students so they know precisely what is expected of them. When learning objectives are clearly communicated to students, the reasoning goes, students will be more likely to achieve the presented goals. Conversely, when learning objectives are absent or unclear, students may not know what’s expected of them, which may then lead to confusion, frustration, or other factors that could impede the learning process.

LEARNING OUTCOMES

Operational statements describing specific student behaviors that evidence the acquisition of desired knowledge, skills, abilities, capacities, attitudes or dispositions. Learning outcomes can be usefully thought of as behavioral criteria for determining whether students are achieving the educational objectives of a program, and, ultimately, whether overall program goals are being successfully met. Outcomes are sometimes treated as synonymous with objectives, though objectives are usually more general statements of what students are expected to achieve in an academic program. (Allen, Noel, Rienzi & McMillin, 2002)

CONSTRUCT

Constructs vary in their ease of measurement, with some constructs being relatively easy to assess and others requiring more subtle or indirect measurement. The construct is a proposed attribute of a person that often cannot be measured directly, but can be assessed using a number of indicators or manifest variables. Constructs are also discussed under other labels, such as theoretical constructs or latent variables, which are interchangeable terms.

ITEM BIAS

When important decisions are made based on test scores, it is critical to avoid bias, which may unfairly influence examinees’ scores. Bias is the presence of some characteristic of an item that results in differential performance for individuals of the same ability but from different ethnic, sex, cultural, or religious groups.

 Assessment VS.  Evaluation:

Comparison of Chracteristics
Assessment vs Evaluation
Assessment Evaluation
Formative
Cyclical – ongoing to improve learning
Summative
final to gauge quality
Process-Oriented
How learning is going
Product-Oriented
What’s been learned
Reflective
Internally defined criteria/goals
Prespective
Externally imposed standards
Diagnostic
Identify areas for improvement
Conclusive
Arrive at an overall grade/score
Flexible
Adjust as problems are clarified
Fixed
Determine success or failure in reaching desired outcome

Measurement vs Evaluation

Measurement is the process of knowing about physical qualities of objects and individuals such as length, weight, height, volume, density, and so on. On the other hand there are circumstances where measurement is not possible. This is where evaluation is done on the basis of either comparison or assessment. Evaluation helps in passing judgment about policies, performances, processes, and so on.

 

Reliability VS. Validity

  • Reliability refers to the reproducibility of a measurement. Validity refers to the similarity between the experiment value and the true value.
  • Reliability is related with the consistency of the measurements whereas validity is focused more on how accurate the measurements are.
  • By saying “a sample is reliable,” it doesn’t mean it is valid.

• Reliability is related with precision, whereas validity is related with accuracy.

 

DIRECT vs INDIRECT MEASURES

Direct measures are regularly employed to measure learning in the classroom. Direct measures are those that measure student learning by assessing actual samples of student work. Examples include: exams/tests, papers, projects, presentations, portfolios, performances, etc. Because direct measures capture what students can actually do, they are considered best for measuring levels of achievement of student learning on specific outcomes.

Indirect measures provide a less concrete view of student learning; for example, attitudes, perceptions, feelings, values, etc. Indirect measures imply student learning by employing self-reported data and reports. Indirect measures help to substantiate instances of student learning. Indirect measures include surveys, interviews, course evaluations, and reports on retention, graduation, and placement, etc. Indirect measures are best situated at program or university level assessment. These measures are commonly in conjunction with direct measures of student learning.

Norm-referenced / criterion-referenced test

Norm-referenced tests are designed to rank test takers on a “bell curve,” or a distribution of scores that resembles, when graphed, the outline of a bell—i.e., a small percentage of students performing poorly, most performing average, and a small percentage performing well.

In elementary and secondary education, criterion-referenced tests are used to evaluate whether students have learned a specific body of knowledge or acquired a specific skill set. For example, the curriculum taught in a course, academic program, or content area. If students perform at or above the established expectations—for example, by answering a certain percentage of questions correctly—they will pass the test, meet the expected standards, or be deemed “proficient.”

Sources:

http://web2.uconn.edu/assessment/docs/resources/Eric_Soulsby_Assessment_Notes.pdf

http://www.apus.edu/community-scholars/learning-outcomes-assessment/university-assessment/glossary.html

http://www.flaguide.org/start/assess_intro.php

http://www.differencebetween.com/difference-between-reliability-and-vs-validity/

http://www.differencebetween.com/difference-between-measurement-and-vs-evaluation/

http://www.differencebetween.com/difference-between-assessment-and-vs-evaluation/

http://www.smu.edu/Provost/assessment/Measures

http://edglossary.org/criterion-referenced-test/

Commentaries

Continuing education, makes sense!

Each person have different reasons for continuing their education. Every one has their own purpose. I maybe one of them. So, is this making sense?

According to Paulo Freire, he believed that “education makes sense because women and men learn that through the learning they can make and remake themselves”. For other people, it’s all about more money and different life. For me, continuing education is important. Here’s why:

  1. Be more qualified for the position – because employers now are looking for the most qualified candidates for the job.
  2. Gain confidence – A good leader should have a complete confidence that will help expand not only their horizons, but with others (especially as an educator).
  3. Improve discipline – the higher the education is, the more focused we are to get things done.
  4. Security in the future – any credentials, we earn, stays with us for life.
  5. Better lifestyle – A degree will help us push through and separate us from the status quo.

is-this-making-sense

What more can I say, It really does make sense.